Varicose veins: risk factors and prevention

Varicose veins

Varicose disease of the lower extremities is the most common disease of the peripheral veins, which is the violation of the outflow of blood from the venous system. According to various estimates, suffer from varicose veins 25-40% of women and 10-15% of men of working age.

Varicose veins of the violations occur in the vessel wall, and depending on the form of the disease, they can be intra-dermal or subcutaneous, is more or less common, obvious or subtle. Sometimes patients for varicose veins include the "stars" - spider veins or trophic disorders (darkening of the skin on the legs, seal subcutaneous tissue and other manifestations).

Risk factors

The main reasons for development of varicose veins include:

  1. Genetic predisposition. Disease can be pronounced "family" character, affecting relatives in a descending line.
  2. Pregnancy.
  3. Weight.
  4. Work and sports associated with heavy physical exertion, heavy lifting, strong muscular tension. Prolonged static position – sitting or standing work).
  5. Hormonal medications.
  6. Wearing tight clothing and shoes.
  7. Disorders in the digestive system (prone to constipation).
  8. Diseases of the liver and gallbladder (hepatitis, bile stasis, etc.).

Complications of varicose veins

Varicose veins causes severe complications that are more severe than the disease itself:

Thrombophlebitis. Inflammation of a vein with formation in the lumen of a thrombus (blood clot). A blood clot can cause pain and interfere with walking and working. Part of the clot or the entire clot can start to move through the bloodstream, carrying the threat of blockage of any of the vessel and endangering the lives.

To trigger the development of thrombosis can:

  • the impact zone of varicose veins;
  • overheating (bath or sauna);
  • dehydration;
  • high body temperature;
  • alcohol poisoning;
  • long stay in a sitting position (in a car or flying in an airplane).

Trophic ulcers. Occur in areas of varicose, bleed and are very difficult to heal.

The changes in the blood composition and increase its viscosity.

Thromboembolism. Blockage by a clot, one of the heart arteries.

Symptoms and diagnosis

The external manifestation of varicose disease is:

  • the presence of a venous network on the legs;
  • the translucence of thin veins;
  • swelling of the feet;
  • cramps;
  • fatigue and heaviness in the legs at the end of the working day;
  • leg pain after strong physical exertion;
  • the presence of pronounced venous nodes;
  • education of trophic ulcers.
The main method of diagnosis of varicose veins – ultrasound duplex scanning of vessels of the legs (ultrasound).


varicose veins

Currently, there are two types of treatment of varicose veins:

  1. Conservative. An integrated approach to the treatment of varicose veins include:
    • cleansing of the body;
    • treatment of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and liver;
    • outdoor use special creams and gels that strengthen the walls of blood vessels, improve their elasticity, as well as relieve swelling and fatigue in the legs;
    • preparations in capsule form;
    • hirudotherapy (use of leeches) is one of the most effective conservative treatment of varicose veins and its complications;
    • physiotherapy;
    • wearing compression hosiery.
    To conduct courses of treatment is best for 1 month with breaks of 2-3 months.
  2. Surgical. Surgically removes the damaged part of the vessel. Modern method of treatment is sclerotherapy. While in the affected vein injected a special substance, Vienna and falls off from the General circulation – it will be disabled. Venous outflow is carried out in roundabout ways support ways. For cosmetic purposes can be used micro sclerotherapy of spider veins.


  1. Wear only comfortable and loose clothes and shoes that are not constricted and not pinched blood vessels.
  2. Avoid lifting and carrying heavy objects.
  3. If you are sedentary or standing work, it is important to do warm-UPS and breaks.
  4. To slow down the progression of the disease can be, if you regularly wear compression stockings: special elastic stockings, socks, tights, leotards.
  5. Use elastic bandages to support the veins in the normal state.
  6. It is useful to do exercise with raised legs: lying on your back – "Bicycle", "scissors", etc.
  7. For the prevention of varicose helpful walking, swimming, running, Cycling, contrast shower on legs.
  8. Watch for normal bowel function. Drink more water and eat sufficient fresh fruits and vegetables (400 g per day).