Varicose veins: causes, symptoms, treatment, prevention

Varicose veins or varicose veins is a chronic disease. One of the signs of varicose veins – varicose veins with simultaneous violation of the outflow of blood and its stagnation in the venous system.

varicose veins

Varicose veins has symptoms that can develop under the influence of a number of reasons. This can be a characteristic protrusion of the thick, tortuous, and large veins. Very often there is varicose veins of the lower extremities.

In the initial stages of varicose veins is possible to do without surgical intervention and use other methods of treatment. This will allow the patient to significantly improve the condition and stop the progression of the disease. Treatment of varicose veins without surgery is used in case surgical intervention for any reason contraindicated.

Varicose veins – an abnormal local expansion of the lumen of the veins. More common in the vessels of the lower extremities. Generally, varicose veins occur due to genetic predisposition, sedentary lifestyle, anatomical of violation of valvular veins.

With varicose veins is significantly reduced elasticity of the veins and the veins start to expand. Within the veins there are the so-called dampers, which regulate constant blood flow. If everything is working correctly, there is no problem. When malfunction occurs varicose veins. The valves are no longer normal to shut down and delay the movement of blood to the heart. The pressure builds and pushes the blood from the thick veins in thinner vessels. A system of thin veins not adapted to such pressure – they are stretching and destruction.

Become highly visible on the legs spider veins, which pose a serious aesthetic problem. Varicose veins progresses, a thin weakened veins are becoming more pronounced, distinctive blue color, thicken, and soon they appear nodules.

Causes of varicose veins

There are many causes of varicose veins, which increase the likelihood that the patient suffers from varicose veins:

  • Genetic legacy from relatives, faced with varicose veins, a descendant could "take" of Vienna with a special structure (weakness of connective tissue, imperfect valves, etc.); and then, without the continued observance of the preventive measures he probably must sooner or later become a patient with the diagnosis "varicose veins on the legs".
  • Hormone fluctuations – most often it affects women (menopause, menstruation, pregnancy, etc.), which explains apparent gender selectivity of the disease; in addition, the risk of varicose veins increases and treatment – it is scientifically proven that they contained female sex hormones and their deputies greatly reduce the elasticity of venous walls.
  • Disorders of the nervous system, stress, depression – all this leads to a decrease in tone of veins in the lower extremities;
  • Inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs – these processes can lead to hormonal imbalance, but also may damage the small veins;
  • Low physical activity – over time, the vein is compressed, it interferes with the circulation of blood decreases the tone of venous walls, and finally the blood begins to stagnate, and there is the varicose veins (today, the doctors have even a special term – computer varicose veins, so large number of patients, the cause of the disease which was sedentary work in front of a flickering monitor);
  • High physical activity – these include weight lifting, excess weight, pregnancy, work, associated with long standing; as a result, significantly increased pressure in the veins that lead to the occurrence of varicose veins;
  • Flat feet;
  • Habit always and everywhere to go to the wrong high heels;
  • Constipation, which increases pressure in the abdomen;
  • Various injuries and diseases;
  • Paul. The risk of varicose veins in women is much higher.
  • The structure of the body. Varicose often affects people of above-average growth.
symptoms of varicose veins

Symptoms of varicose veins on the legs

Not to miss the moment of occurrence of varicose veins on the legs, you need to know the first symptoms and time to take the right steps.

The main symptoms of varicose veins on the legs:

  • The occurrence of pain in the legs, burning through his veins, the feeling of heat;
  • Noticeable heaviness in the legs (not to be confused with fatigue);
  • The appearance of edema in the legs. Usually swelling appear in the evening;
  • Leg cramps at night;
  • Noticeable varicose veins;
  • The skin at the Shin becomes noticeable dark color. There are seals and possibly venous ulcers.

There are other symptoms of varicose veins:

  • Can be manifestation in the region of the popliteal fossa or the entire rear surface of the legs. If the legs are thick or there is excessive hairiness, the manifestation of varicose veins less noticeable;
  • Veins can easily be felt. With the defeat of varicose veins they can be curved;
  • Mesh of varicose veins may disappear if the patient be laid horizontally and lift the leg. The vertical position of the body of the vein will become thicker;
  • Felt an unusual heaviness in the legs, pain dull in nature, intermittent seizures. The patient may complain of a slight burning sensation in the legs;
  • Feet often swell, mainly in the soft tissues.

These are the main symptoms of varicose veins. Varicose veins will progress without proper treatment of varicose veins.

If the disease will progress, you can display the symptoms of varicose veins, such as:

  • Indurate (seal);
  • A disturbance in the nutrition of the skin;
  • Pigmentation of the skin on legs;
  • Trophic ulcers.

If there are other symptoms of varicose veins such as high body temperature, weakness – it is said that varicose veins have moved into a stage of complications.

The effects of varicose veins

Varicose veins is not just an aesthetic problem feet. This disease is able to "hit" the heart. Varicose veins gives serious trouble and reduces the quality of life. If there is no quality medical care, the varicose veins will give serious complications, including death.

the effects of varicose veins

Consequences of varicose veins:

  • The formation of blood clots, as a result of stagnation of blood in the veins;
  • Detachment of thrombus and occlusion of the vessel coincides with its diameter;
  • Thrombophlebitis;
  • Pulmonary embolism (detached blood clot in the blood gets into the pulmonary artery, which participates in blood circulation in a small circle. If the clot diameter coincides with the diameter of the trunk of this artery, it can cause sudden death.
  • Sores or eczema of the legs caused eating disorders (poor blood circulation leads to lack of oxygen in the tissue, which is the main nourishment of the tissues of the body);
  • Swelling different areas of the body as a result of stagnation in the veins (they are soft, elastic, bluish in color, their education does not depend on the time of day, often form in the affected area);
  • Dermatitis (skin inflammation in the affected area) due to malnutrition of the site;
  • Change the color of the skin in the affected area;
  • Sealing subcutaneous fatty tissue in the affected area due to swelling.

Diagnosis of varicose veins

  1. Functional tests (determination of the patency of veins and their valves): Troyanova – Trendelenburg, Pratt, Shania and others. One of the most common test Troyanova – Trendelenburg with which the patient being in a horizontal position, lifts the leg 450, the doctor makes a stroking from the foot up (as a result, the superficial veins are emptied), then establishes a tourniquet to the upper thigh and asks the patient to stand normally, the filling of the veins of the lower leg should happen more than 15 seconds;
  2. Duplex ultrasound scanning of the veins is the most informative method to evaluate the blood flow in the vessel and see the vessel;
  3. Doppler ultrasound – a method in which assessed blood flow in the vessel;
  4. Venography is the injection of a contrast agent intravenously and the study of the x-ray picture;
  5. Intravenous administration of the radiopharmaceutical and the observation on a special device.

Treatment of varicose veins

A specific treatment of varicose veins on the legs may depend on the degree of development of the disease. If this is only the initial step, it is possible to use conservative therapies.

treatment of varicose veins

Conservative treatments for varicose veins:

  • The treatment of varicose veins medicines. Is tablets, creams, ointments;
  • The compresses. Wearing special compression garments (stockings, bandages);
  • Pneumo massage. Uses a special device, capable to intensify blood circulation, improve tissue trophism and significantly remove negative symptoms of varicose veins;
  • Sclerotherapy. Used when removal of damaged veins is not enough. Is injected into a vein medication can weaken diseased vessels, which then disappear;
  • Laser coagulation. Treatment of varicose veins with lasers is one of the modern methods, which is performed under local anesthesia. The results of laser treatment are visible after about a month;
  • Physical therapy, namely the treatment of varicose veins with leeches. This is an unconventional method, but is quite popular.

Prevention of varicose veins

Prevention of varicose veins will be necessary for those who have close relatives (older generation) with this disease. In addition, it is recommended that prophylactic treatment of varices people with excess weight, pregnant women and certain professions, where for a long time to stand on his feet.

Keep an active lifestyle and more exercise. Help especially Hiking, which strengthens the feet, making them more resilient.

There are some recommendations that help to avoid the development of varicose veins:

  • If long standing on the feet, it is desirable periodically to cross and stretch your toes;
  • Office workers (sedentary work) it is advisable to periodically put his feet on the table. This makes it possible to improve the outflow of blood from the veins of the lower extremities;
  • If you use a small footrest, can reduce the pressure on the feet while sitting;
  • Periodically lift the toes. You can relieve the tension of the leg muscles and improve the flow of blood upward;
  • Several times a day do workout the entire body.

In addition, use a compression garment, which helps in the prevention of varicose veins.

prevention of varicose veins

If still there is a slight degree of varicose veins, then you should avoid the following:

  • wearing shoes with high heels;
  • oral contraceptives that can worsen the situation;
  • obesity and excess weight;
  • eating spicy, salty and fatty foods;
  • carrying heavy suitcases and bags;
  • wax depilation;
  • long hot baths;
  • baths and saunas;
  • Smoking, drugs, alcohol;
  • to self-medicate.