Varicose veins in our body can be located not just in the legs. The pelvic region is another place where varicose veins can also be. A pathological condition in which there are dilated veins in the small pelvis, as a rule, occurs in women and is accompanied by periodic discomfort and pain in the lower abdomen. In men, varicose veins in the small pelvis are also found, but they are mainly manifested by expansion of the spermatic cord veins (varicocele). This pathological process in men can be accompanied by discomfort, heaviness in the scrotum, pain in intimacy.
According to statistics, small pelvic varicose veins, or as it is also called - the chronic pelvic pain syndrome, occurs mainly in young women - from 18 to 48 years. The number of patients with this disease increases several times with age. The statistics are disappointing. Therefore, at the age of 18-19 years, small pelvic varicose veins are detected in 15-18% of women, and by age 48, their number increases to 70-80%.
Causes of pelvic varices
The first reason is physical inactivity. It also includes the specificity of the patient's work, "sedentary" or "standing" work. Due to the long stay of a person in orthostasis, the venous flow is disturbed and this leads to stagnation of the small pelvis. The valves in pathologically dilated veins no longer adhere to each other, a gap forms between the valves and blood is drained due to the force of gravity. In these veins, blood thickens and subsequently can cause thrombosis.
The second reason is pregnancy. During pregnancy, the uterus enlarges and begins to press on the underlying veins. Also, during pregnancy, hormonal background changes, the volume of circulating blood in the small pelvis increases.
But to calm women preparing for conception and pregnancy, these varicose veins pose no direct danger. With small pelvic varicose veins, delivery is usually normal. An unpleasant moment - in 30-40% of pregnant women there is an enlargement of the veins in the vulva and perineum. But we must remember that immediately after childbirth, these veins significantly diminish and, after a year, disappear completely. After delivery, small pelvic varicose veins remain in only 2 to 6% of patients.
The third reason is the presence of various types of gynecological pathologies for the treatment of which hormonal drugs are used.
The fourth reason is to smoke. It is very dangerous to smoke while taking hormonal contraceptives. Smoking thickens the blood, as do hormonal contraceptives. Hence the many ridiculous accidents known in medicine, when smoking girls who took hormonal contraceptives died of thrombosis.
The fifth reason is obesity. With excess body weight, the load on the vessels increases significantly.
The sixth reason is the ecological situation of the region of residence, air pollution in cities, especially in megacities, increases the risk of developing varicose veins.
The main symptoms of varicose veins in the small pelvis
- painful periods;
- recurrent pain in the lower abdomen as well as the pelvic region, extending to the sacrum, lower back, perineum;
- pain and discomfort in the vulva or vagina, during and after intimacy;
- abundant mucous discharge from the vagina, usually in the second half of the menstrual cycle;
- visible expansion of venous vessels in the genital area, in the groin. "Asterisks", "mesh" on the buttocks and the back of the thighs.
What to do if you have symptoms of pelvic varicose veins?
If you discover all of the above in yourself, don't delay a visit to the doctor, otherwise the possible complications won't make you wait long.
The first doctor you should see is a gynecologist.
He will take an exam, schedule all the necessary exams. All patients suspected of having pelvic varices undergo an ultrasound examination of the abdominal organs.
To clarify the diagnosis, the patient is referred to a phlebologist. They perform duplex ultrasound scanning of the lower extremity veins (USDG), which allows a complete picture of the venous flow to be obtained.
In difficult cases, a phlebologist may prescribe additional examination methods (CT scan, MRI or diagnostic laparoscopy). To establish an accurate diagnosis and determine the degree of the disease, these studies are sufficient.
The degree of varicose veins in the small pelvis
- 1 degree - small pelvic veins up to 5 mm in diameter (noticeable damage to any small pelvic venous plexus), vessel course is already taking on a tortuous appearance;
- 2 degrees - the size of the veins is 6 to 10 mm; varices on ultrasound are visible throughout the small pelvis and can only affect the ovarian plexus, or the veins of the uterus, or the veins of the myometrium;
- Grade 3 is a small total pelvic varicose vein, varicose veins have a diameter of more than 10 - 12 mm.
How to treat pelvic varices?
- Fight the hypodynamics. If the work is associated with sitting or standing for a long time, warm up after 1 to 1. 5 hours;
- Quit smoking, alcohol (especially if you're pregnant! );
- Wear compression underwear (socks, tights) to improve venous flow to the lower extremities;
- Wear comfortable shoes, avoiding high heels;
- Diet (exclusion from the savory, spicy, fried diet). Salty foods always retain fluid in the body, which leads to edema, an increase in blood pressure - thus the blood flow through the veins worsens. You need to include more fiber in your diet (fruits, vegetables, herbs);
- Contrast shower, (especially on thighs, perineum, lower abdomen);
- Physiotherapy and breathing exercises.
- Phlebotonics - to improve the tone of varicose veins, reduce their permeability;
- Horse Chestnut Extract - to relieve inflammation and swelling;
- Troxerutin - to improve blood flow from varicose veins, increase vein tone, reduce inflammation and edema;
- Vitamin C - to strengthen blood vessel walls, reduce their fragility.
Venous gels and ointments are not used to treat pelvic varices due to the internal location of the affected veins.
Doctors recommend a mandatory combination of drug therapy with the use of compression stockings (stockings, tights). During pregnancy, there is a special need for compression garments.
Surgical operation is an extreme measure used when medical correction is impossible and ineffective and the disease is very advanced and can cause a series of complications.
Various techniques are used depending on the prevalence, location and diameter of pathological veins. If there is a need for surgical intervention, the choice of the type of surgical aid is individual, as everything depends on the location and prevalence.