Previously, if the conservative treatment of varicose veins did not bring the desired results, or the complications posed a serious risk to the patient's health, doctors prescribed surgery. In this case, the affected vein was completely removed, and after the operation, the scars remained on the skin. Modern medicine makes it possible, in certain cases, to replace an outdated operation with more advanced laser therapy.
The essence of impact is that a laser beam of a certain wavelength is directed into the dilated vein. The blood cells convert the incoming impulse into thermal energy, as a result of sealing the affected vein, so to speak, and the blood begins to circulate along deeper healthy pathways.
At the same time, all adjacent tissues remain unharmed as the laser beam acts selectively and the area of the body where the manipulation was performed does not cause discomfort afterwards due to the deficient vein.
Laser surgery for varicose veins is divided into two types, which are used in different situations. Percutaneous laser correction is used in most cases for the treatment of venous mesh, which can be called the initial stage in the development of varicose veins. The procedure is performed without direct contact with the skin, and the result is no different from the other type of procedure, but in this case, the vein should not exceed 3 mm in diameter.
Endovasal laser coagulation (EVLK) is used more frequently, in Europe this procedure has become a priority method of therapy, and the surgical treatment of varicose veins is gradually relegated to the background. EVLK involves a microscopic incision in the skin through which a light guide is inserted into the damaged vein. This feature allows you to freely "glue" any dilated vein that does not exceed 1 cm in diameter. The entire process is under the control of ultrasound diagnostics, so the risk of medical error is minimal.
Negative comments about laser vein clotting are most often left by people who trusted an inexperienced doctor or ignored the advice of an expert.
Indications and Contraindications
Any procedure has indications and contraindications, which the attending physician must inform. In the case of treating varicose veins in the legs with laser coagulation, the specialist must carefully check the prerequisites for the procedure.
Firstly, the vein must be expanded in the mouth by no more than 10 mm, otherwise the therapy will be useless and the problem will soon return.
Second, the vein must have a smooth course from the trunk so that the light guide can pass freely through it from beginning to end.
Third, there shouldn't be too many varicose veins.
Before starting laser treatment, it is necessary to take into account the existing contraindications to the procedure:
- tendency to thrombophlebitis;
- any chronic diseases in the acute phase;
- pathology of blood circulation;
- vein expansion more than 1 cm;
- inflammatory processes in the affected area;
- infectious diseases accompanied by elevated body temperature;
- low patient mobility for health reasons.
If you ignore existing contraindications, there can be negative consequences that will be much more difficult to eliminate. In order for the procedure to be successful, you need to contact only a specialized medical institution, which employs experienced and responsible specialists.
How is the procedure
In a preliminary consultation with a doctor, the patient answers all the necessary questions and undergoes an examination so that the specialist can decide whether laser treatment of varicose veins will help in this case and if it is necessary. After that, examinations are prescribed, and if no contraindications are found, the date of the session is announced.
There is no specialized preparation for laser coagulation, but the patient must follow some specialist recommendations:
- loose and comfortable clothes and shoes must be worn, especially in the last days before the scheduled date;
- a few days before the procedure, you need to stop taking drugs that affect the viscosity of the blood.
In the first step, the phlebologist, together with an ultrasound diagnostic specialist, marks and marks the location of the entire part of the vein affected by varicose veins in the affected area of the patient's body. This step can vary in duration: if the vein is straight and short, the process will only take a few minutes, and if it is often twisted and involved in a long section, marking may take longer.
The second step is the use of local anesthesia, which is more commonly used as Novocaine, if the patient is not allergic to it. The doctor, under the control of an ultrasound machine, carefully cuts the affected vein without damaging it. This step is very important, because in addition to anesthetizing the procedure, it prevents the laser beam from affecting nearby tissues.
Laser varicose vein removal begins with the phlebologist choosing a suitable radiation mode for the patient. Then, a small incision is made, through which a light guide is taken to the vein if endovascular coagulation is performed, or the laser acts superficially if the percutaneous method is chosen. With the aid of an ultrasound machine, the phlebologist controls the process and moves the source of the laser beam along the entire length of the dilated vein.
After laser treatment of the veins of the lower extremities, you will need to wear compression underwear for two weeks and for the first few days after the procedure, not only during the day but also at night. Also, immediately after exposure and for two weeks thereafter, you will need to go for walks lasting at least 30 minutes.
Consequences of therapy
In most cases, varicose veins on the legs and other parts of the body are amenable to laser clotting without side effects and relapses. At first, the patient may feel discomfort, pain or other discomfort in the affected area, bruising may also appear, but this gradually disappears. Otherwise, you will need the help of a doctor.
If the course of laser treatment of varicose veins in the legs and other parts of the body was interrupted, or the patient neglected the advice of a specialist, more serious complications can occur. The most harmless of these is the penetration of infection through an open wound, which is treated with antibiotics. A more serious complication is the occurrence of a superficial or deep vein thrombus, which is only treated surgically.